Quebec Chronology

1535.-JACQUES CARTIER enters the St. Charles River on the 14th of September and winters beside the Indian village of Stadacana, the site of which is now included in the city of Quebec.

1540.-FRANCIS I makes ROBERVAL his Viceroy in New France.

1541.—CARTIER, sent out by ROBERVAL, builds a fort at Cap Rouge, a few miles above Quebec, and winters there.

1542.-ROBERVAL arrives and winters at Cartier’s fort.

1543-1607.—Basque and French fishermen frequent the Lower St. Lawrence, and a few small trading-posts are established in different parts of the country ; but no town settle-ment of any kind has had a continuous life from that time to this.

1608.—CHAMPLAIN founds CANADA by building his Abitacian at Quebec. Champlain was soldier, sailor, statesman and pioneer, equally at home in an Indian wigwam or at the court of HENRY IV of France ; and his staunch and pious character is worthy of a Father of his country.

1620.-First Fort St. Louis begun.

1625.-FRENCH MISSIONARIES arrive. Many suffer death by torture, but others always take their place.

1629.-The KIRKES take Quebec in the name of CHARLES I of England, who holds it three years in pledge for the dowry of his Queen, Henrietta Maria of France, and who grants his friend, Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling,” The County and Lordship of Canada”!

1632.-Quebec restored to the Crown of France.

1635.-CHAMPLAIN dies on Christmas day, just a century after the landing of Jacques Cartier. Quebec contains hardly a hundred souls, and only three small public buildings: the store belonging to the trading company of the Cent Associés, Fort St. Louis, on the site of the present Château Frontenac Hotel, and the parish church of Notre-Dame de la Recouvrance, on the site of the present Basilica. Champlain caused the Angelus to be rung three times a day, a custom still observed in Quebec.

1639.-Arrival of the Ursulines and Hospitalières.

1646.-On New Year’s Eve the first play ever performed in Quebec, Corneille’s Le Cid, was given before the Governor and the Jesuit Fathers in a store-room belonging to the Cent Associés in Ste Anne Street.

1647.–First Château St. Louis. Last one burnt 1834. This was the residence of both French and British Governors, and stood near the present Terrace.

I648.-The Governor in Council appoints Jacques Boisdon (bibulous cognomen !) first and sole inn-keeper of Quebec, on condition “that the said Jacques Boisdon settles in the square in front of the church, so that the people may go there to warm themselves; and that he keeps nobody in his house during High Mass, sermons, the catechism or Vespers.”

1656.-GREAT IROQUOIS RAID and massacre of the Hurons in sight of Quebec.

1659-1706.-Great episcopate of the first Bishop of Quebec, François de MONTMORENCY-LAVAL.

1660-3.-CANADA threatened with extermination by Indians, by famine, by the complete down-fall of the whole Colony, and by the most terrible earthquakes in tier history. LAVAL, the first Bishop, and LA MIRE MARIE DE L’INCARNATION, first Superior of the Ursuline nuns, persuade Canadians that their country is at the beginning of a great career and not at the end of a dismal failure. Laval founded his Seminary during the seven months of continual earthquakes. The present Ursuline _convent went through four sieges in eighty-five years, and never lacked nuns to risk their lives in trying to safeguard it under fire, or to join the Hospitalières in nursing the sick and wounded of both sides.

1663.–The Chartered Company of the Cent Associés lapses, and QUEBEC is declared the CAPITAL of the ROYAL PROVINCE OF NEW FRANCE. The population of Quebec is still only 500, of which 150 belong to Religious Communities.

1665.–The new Royal Governor arrives ; also the Great Intendant, JEAN TALON, 212 persons of title or fortune, 12 companies of French Regulars, and many settlers, who became known as habitants. DE TRACY, the King’s personal VICEROY, arrives and makes war on the Iroquois.

1670.–In this year there are 700 births in the little colony, representing a birth-rate three times as high as the average of civilized peoples today.

1672–82 and 1689-98.–Governorships of FRONTENAC, who built the first walls, defeated the Indians, repulsed the first American Invasion, and upheld his authority against all rivals.

1688.—LAVAL, the first Canadian Bishop, founds a church, called Notre-Dame des Victoires after the saving of Quebec in 1690 and 1711. Taschereau, the first Canadian Cardinal, celebrated the bicentenary in 18 88. This church is nearly on the same site as Champlain’s Abitacion. It has a relic of the True Cross, and one of Ste. Geneviève, on whose fête the Chaplain blesses unleavened bread for women who dread the pains of childbirth.

1690.-FRONTENAC repulses PHIPS and THE FIRST AMERICAN INVASION OF CANADA,

1692.-FRONTENAC builds the first walls Quebec.

1711.-Sir Hovenden Walker wrecked on his way to attack Quebec.

1755-60.-Complete inefficiency under the Governor-General, VAUDREUIL, and corruption under the Intendant, BIGOT.

1756-59.-French forces commanded by MONT-CALM, the greatest Frenchman of the whole New World, one of the most tragically heroic figures of all time, and a most consummate master of the art of war.

1759.-SIEGE OF QUEBEC and BATTLE of the PLAINS OF ABRAHAM.

Inscription over Wolfe’s death-place

HERE DIED WOLFE VICTORIOUS. Inscription over grave of Montcalm :

HONNEUR A MONTCALM LE DESTIN EN LUI DÉROBANT LA VICTOIRE L’A RÉCOMPENSÉ PAR UNE MORT GLORIEUSE, Inscription on Monument to Wolfe and Montcalm together

MORTEM VIRTUS COMMUNEM FAMAM HISTORIA MONUMENTUM POSTERITAS DEDIT,

Montcalm was buried in the Ursuline Chapel, where an Anglican service was held a few days later in memory of Wolfe. The Highland Chaplain conducted the Presbyterian memorial service in the Jesuit Barracks.

1760.-LEVIS defeats MURRAY in the second battle of the Plains. In 186o a monument was erected AUX BRAVES who redressed the balance of victory in favour of FRANCE.

1763.-Just 100 years after declaring Canada the Royal Province of New France the FRENCH CROWN cedes the sovereignty to GEORGE III.

1759-74.-Canada under the generous military rule of MURRAY and CARLETON at Quebec.

1774.-THE QUEBEC ACT passed by the Imperial Parliament.

1775-6.-FRENCH- and ENGLISH-speaking British subjects, under CARLETON, defeat THE SECOND AMERICAN INVASION OF CANADA.

Inscription where Arnold was repulsed

HERE STOOD HER OLD AND NEW DEFENDERS UNITING, GUARDING, SAVING CANADA

DEFEATING ARNOLD AT THE SAULT-AU-MATELOT BARRICADE ON THE LAST DAY OF GUY CARLETON COMMANDING AT QUEBEC.

Inscription where -Montgomery was repulsed

HERE STOOD THE UNDAUNTED FIFTY SAFEGUARDING CANADA DEFEATING MONTGOMERY AT THE PRÉS-DE-VILLE BARRICADE ON THE LAST DAY OF GUY CARLETON COMMANDING AT QUEBEC.

1775-90.-Coming of the UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS, some of whom settled in Quebec and have descendants there at the present day.

1782.-NELSON at Quebec in H.M.S. Albemarle. He frequented the house on the site of the present No. 15, Ramparts, which belonged to a U.E. Loyalist, a Mr. Woolsey. And it was from Bandon Lodge, on the site of a house bearing the same name and numbered 55 Grande Allée, that he was decoyed away by a Quebecer and one of his own officers, lest he should marry pretty Mary Simpson, daughter of Wolfe’s old Provost Marshal.

1783.-The first British fortification of Quebec. The remains of those parts of this fortification which occupied Cape Diamond are still pointed out as “Old French Works.” As a matter of fact, there are no old French works remaining anywhere.

1787.-His Majesty, KING WILLIAM IV, then a Naval Officer in H.M.S. Pegasus, is the FIRST MEMBER OF THE ROYAL FAMILY to Visit Quebec.

He paid a visit to the Ursulines, who entered in their diary that they were charmed with him and that they found him so polite, although he is a sailor ! It is said that this visit to Quebec might have changed the history of England, as, by some unaccountable mistake, the contractor made the Royal stand, to view the fireworks, over a powder magazine ! A Royal Review was held on the site of Wolfe’s great victory.

1791-4.-His Royal Highness the DUKE OF KENT, father of QUEEN VICTORIA, spends three years in Quebec with his regiment, the 7th Royal Fusiliers. A State Ball was given at the Chateau St. Louis in honour of his twenty-fourth birthday. He is said to have been the keenest dancer present, keeping the party up till five o’clock in the morning. The elections for the first Canadian Parliament resulted in some lively scenes ; and it is said that the Duke, driving incognito to Charlesbourg, a village near Quebec, and seeing a friend of his attacked by two men and knocked down, doubled his royal fists and himself knocked down, with a single right and left, both his friend’s assailants. From Quebec the Duke went to the West Indies, where he greatly distinguished himself in action at Martinique, a name ever afterwards dear to Queen Victoria, who was justly proud of being a soldier’s daughter.

1792. — THE FIRST PARLIAMENT IN GREATER BRITAIN, under the direct authority of a Governor General, opens at Quebec. It was opened by General Clarke, representing Carleton. It was held on a most historic site ; where the Bishops of the old regime always had their Palace, where King Edward VII stayed during his visit in 1860, where the Fathers of Confederation began their sessions in 1864,and where the Dominion of Canada was proclaimed in 1867.

1793.—The Anglican see of Quebec established. The Bishop is cordially welcomed by the French-Canadian Bishop.

1799.—MONSEIGNEUR PLESSIS, Vicar-General of the French-Canadian Roman Catholic diocese of Quebec, preaches a sermon in the Basilica to celebrate NELSON’S victory at the Nile ; and the Bishop’s Mandement ordains a General Thanksgiving for the blessings insured to Canada by the just laws and protecting arms of the BRITISH CROWN.

1799–1804.—H.M. KING GEORGE III takes great interest in the building of the Anglican Cathedral, as H.M. KING LOUIS XIV had done in the welfare of the Basilica. Each King gave plate or vestments and other objects for religious service to his respective church in Quebec. There has always been a Royal pew in the Anglican cathedral, and it has often been occupied by Royalty. The old colours of the 69th Regiment, over the stalls, were replaced by new ones presented on the Esplanade by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, then a lieutenant,and now 1911), forty years after, the first Royal Governor-General. The Arch-bishop of Canterbury preached the Centenary sermon here in 1904. The Duke of Richmond, who was buried here in 1819, was Governor-General at the time of his death. He was nephew to the previous Duke of Richmond, who was an officer in Wolfe’s old regiment, whose guardians tried to get Wolfe to become his tutor in 1754, and who actually did become the pupil of Carleton, who was himself a Governor-General of Canada !

1812.-QUEBEC sends her full quota to repel THE THIRD AMERICAN INVASION OF CANADA. The French and English heroes on the British side at Chateauguay and Queenston Heights were both quartered at Quebec at different times, The street across which Montcalm’s and Wolfe’s men fired into each others’ faces is called after de Salaberry, and Brock lived in the third house from the top of Fabrique Street.

1 823.-The present CITADEL and WALLS built after a plan approved by WELLINGTON and completed in 1832 at a cost of $35,000,000.00, paid by the Imperial Government. This was only one item of the more than a hundred millions sterling, or $500,000,000.00, spent by the Mother Country on the actual work of fortificaion alone.

1871.—The Royal Canadian Artillery,the first Regulars under the Canadian Government, has its first parade at Quebec.

1872-8. LORD DUFFERIN plans many improvements to commemorate Canadian history at Quebec. He would have preferred for his new title, The Marquess of Dufferin and Quebec.

1875.-Celebration of the Tooth anniversary of the Saving of Canada by Carleton at Quebec.

1878.83.—H.R.H. the PRINCESS LOUISE often visits, Quebec with H.E. the Marquess of Lorne.

1879.—H.M. QUEEN VICTORIA takes great interest in, and contributes to the cost of building, Kent Gate, as a memorial of her father’s stay at Quebec, 1791-4.

1880.—H.R.H. the Duke of Albany visits Quebec.

1883.—H.R.H. Prince GEORGE OF WALES, now King George V, visits Quebec for the first time. He revisits it in 1890.

1884.—Canadian Voyageurs for the Nile Expedition rendezvous at Quebec.

1885.—The Royal Canadian Artillery and 9th Regiment Voltigeurs de Québec leave for the front during the North-West Rebellion.

1889.—The Ursulines and Hospitalières celebrate the 250th anniversary of their foundation in Quebec.

1890.—T.R.H. the Duke and Duchess of Con-naught visit Quebec.

1897.-Lord Aberdeen unveils the statue of the Queen in Victoria Park in honour of her Diamond Jubilee, and the representative Canadian contingent sent to England for this occasion parades on the Esplanade.

1899.—The FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT for the South African War embarks at Quebec.

1901.—T.R.H. the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, now their Majesties King George V and Queen Mary, visit Quebec on their Imperial Tour.

1902.-The First Canadian Coronation Contingent parades to embark at Quebec. (France sends the Montcalm to the Coronation Naval Review in England.)

1905.-H.E. LORD GREY unveils the statue to those Quebecers who died in South Africa

FOR EMPIRE, CANADA, QUEBEC. NOT BY THE POWER OF COMMERCE, ART, OR PEN SHALL OUR GREAT EMPIRE STAND ; NOR HAS IT STOOD; BUT BY THE NOBLE DEEDS OF NOBLE MEN, HEROIC LIVES, AND HEROES’ OUTPOURED BLOOD.

1906.—H.R.H. PRINCE ARTHUR OF CONNAUGHT, returning from King Edward’s Garter Mission to H.I.M. the Emperor of Japan, is the eleventh member of the Royal Family to visit Quebec.

1908.-TERCENTENARY of the foundation of Canada by Champlain at Quebec. Fêtes pre-sided over by H.M. KING GEORGE V.

1908.–The national foundation of THE QUEBEC BATTLEFIELDS PARK by KING GEORGE V.

1911.–H.R.H. THE DUKE of CONNAUGHT arrives as the first Royal Governor-General of Canada.

H.E. EARL GREY leaves, after the most un-usually long term of seven years, amid universal regret. Quebec presents him with a silver model of the Wolfe-Montcalm monu- > ment.

The personal inscription is :

QUEBEC CONDITOR—CHAMPLAIN CONSERVATORES—FRONTENAC.CARLETON COMMEMORATOR—GREY