Canadian Pacific Railway

The Canadian Pacific Railway is an outcome of the Confederation of Canada ; or, rather, of the admission of British Columbia into the Union, it being laid down, as one of the conditions on which that province entered the Dominion, that a railway should be constructed from the east of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, to connect the seaboard of British Columbia with the railway system of Canada ; and that such railway should be commenced within two years from the date of the Union, and completed within ten years. To give effect to this condition, in 1872 an Act was passed by the Dominion Parliament, setting forth the terms and conditions on which a company might construct the road. Two charters were also granted, during the same year, giving powers to two groups of persons to construct such a railway.

As it was found not to be feasible to have two such railways under construction at one time, an endeavour was made to amalgamate them. This effort resulted in failure ; and, acting under powers conferred by the Canadian Pacific Railway Act of 1872, a charter was granted to another company, with Sir Hugh Allan at its head. The circumstances under which this charter was granted were severely called into question in the Dominion House of Commons. Allegations of corruption were made, and acute political complications ensued, with the result that the Government of Sir John Macdonald resigned, and was succeeded by that of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie.

An Act, repealing that of 1872, was passed in 1874, providing for the construction of a Canadian Pacific Railway, but reserving to the Government the right to build all, or any portion of the road, or to purchase any portion built by contractors. A route was chosen, and, under the policy of Mr. Mackenzie, the work was proceeded with as rapidly as in his view the circumstances of the country permitted, but work proceeded slowly ; in fact, in 1899 only some 700 miles had been constructed.

The British Columbia Government and people were, as has been shown, naturally and greatly incensed at the non-realisation of the promise under which they entered the Union. Improved means of transportation were vital to them, and a fierce and determined agitation arose in the province. Protests were lodged at Ottawa, and the Premier of British Columbia went to England for the purpose of laying before the Imperial authorities the case for his province eventually, terms of settlement were proposed by the Colonial Secretary, and agreed to. In 1876, Mr. Mackenzie was beaten at the polls. Sir John Macdonald again became Premier, and it was decided to proceed vigorously with the construction of the road. Contracts were entered into, and the work was pushed forward.

Doubts had, since the inception of the line, been expressed in many quarters as to the wisdom of ” Government ” construction. These misgivings were shared by the administration itself, and eventually, in 1881, an agreement was entered into with a syndicate, under whose direction it was eventually built and operated. The signatories to the Contract and Agreement were Sir Charles Tupper, Minister of Railways and Canals, for the Government of Canada, and Mr. George Stephen, Mr. Duncan McIntyre, Mr. J. J. Hill, Mr. John S. Kennedy, Mr. R. B. Angus, and Messrs. Morton, Rose & Co., and Messrs. Kohn, Reinach & Co. To this company was conceded, under certain conditions, those portions of the Canadian Pacific Railway already constructed, and, upon completion, those portions under contract. At this time, subsidies of $25,000,000 in money, and of 25,000,000 acres in land, were also given, as well as lands required for the road bed, stations, work-shops, etc., etc. Subsequently, further substantial aid was given not only by the Federal Government, but also by Provincial Governments in respect of the construction of branch lines. Advocates of Government owner-ship point out that, in order to ensure the completion of the road, so much of the cost was eventually saddled upon the country, that it would have been in the public interest had the Government kept the enterprise in their own hands.

It was provided that the work should be carried on vigorously and continuously, and that the railway should be complete, and in running order, by 1891. The time given appeared then to be all too short for such an undertaking. Although construction in the prairie sections was comparatively simple, the Rocky Mountain section, and that on the north shore of Lake Superior, presented difficulties of a very formidable nature. The latter portion of the road ran through a waste of forest and rock and swamp, every mile of which had to be hewn, blasted, or filled up. The road through the Rockies was difficult, and that through the Selkirks proved well-nigh insurmountable. Progress, in spite of all, was rapid. Tremendous energy and indomitable perseverance were brought into play. What seemed almost insuperable obstacles both engineering and financial were overcome, and on November 7th, 1885, six years before the date allowed for its completion, the last spike was driven by Mr. Donald Smith (now Lord Strathcona), and the steel highway across Canada was an accomplished fact.

The record of the Canadian Pacific Railway has been, despite occasional checks, one of marvellous prosperity. The Company has not confined its energies to the actual railway operations. Its activities are many and varied, and the name of the Company is synonymous in the Dominion for progress and efficiency. It has a very large telegraph system, a chain of luxurious hotels extending across the continent, first-class steamers on the great lakes, and the well-known steamship services from Great Britain to Canada, and from the Dominion to Japan and China. Money has been most wisely expended in the improvement of the road. Trestle bridges have been replaced by steel bridges, and the heavy grades in the Rocky Mountains have, at great cost, been much reduced. This work was essential, if a large and lucrative freight traffic is to be built up on this portion of the route. In addition, large sections are being double-tracked, and, at the present time, such a track is in operation between Fort William and Brandon, a distance of over 550 miles.

One of the principal items in the arrangement made in 1881 (to which strong adverse criticism has been directed) was the land grant to the Company of 25,000,000 acres. This grant, whatever else may be said —and much has been said !—had a vital effect on the policy of the Company, and gave the impulse to a colonising movement which is attracting to the country, in ever-increasing numbers, the land workers who are so essential to the progress of Canada. Of this grant, more than 12,000,000 acres have already been sold, and a great expanse of what was once wild prairie is now closely settled. A vast irrigation system, the largest on the American Continent, has been introduced by the Company into the districts east of Calgary, turning the grazing lands of Southern Alberta into the “garden of Western Canada.” On this land a fully-equipped demonstration farm has been placed at the disposal of farmers who desire practical instruction on the benefits or irrigation.

A still more recent development of this colonising policy has been the preparation of ready-made farms for British settlers. Under this scheme the Company builds the house and barns, digs the well, fences the land, breaks a proportion of the soil previous to the arrival of the settler from Great Britain, and this, in a large measure, saves him the hardships of pioneering. The ” prepared farm ” is sold to the settler on an easy instalment system, the payments being spread over ten years. The first batch of settlers under the scheme took up residence in 1910, and, judging from present reports, the scheme is likely to prove a pronounced success.

On June 30th, 1910, the total mileage of the Canadian Pacific lines in Canada was 11,003, and this figure does not include the recently acquired :Dominion Atlantic Railway in Nova Scotia, amounting to 247 miles, in addition to running powers for forty-five miles more over the Inter-colonial Railway. The Canadian Pacific Railway taps the trade of every province except Prince Edward Island. The local industries of New Brunswick owe much to the enterprise of the Company, which is making vigorous efforts to further the colonisation of the St. John valley.

From Montreal, the headquarters and terminus of the Company, the two great transcontinental expresses, the Imperial Limited and the Pacific, begin their journey of 2,898 miles across Canada. From Montreal there is also a direct line to Toronto, continuing to Windsor and Detroit, where the Wabash Railroad links the Canadian line with Chicago and the Middle West. From Toronto one can rejoin the main line at Sudbury by a track built through the Muskokas and the French River district. Sudbury is also the junction for the Canadian Pacific Railway line to Saulte Ste. Marie, where the ” Soo ” line makes the connection with Duluth and Minneapolis and St. Paul Railway. From Winnipeg, radiate no less than eight Canadian Pacific branch lines. The main line passes through Portage la Prairie, Brandon, Regina, Moose Jaw, and Medicine Hat to Calgary. Other branches are from Portage to Wetaskiwin, and the Calgary and Edmonton branch. This latter line is the great coal feeder of Northern Alberta, carrying a ceaseless procession of freight trains from the vast mines of the Crow’s Nest Pass. From Calgary to Medicine Hat, for a distance of 150 miles, is the great 3,000,000 irrigation block.

This area is the embodiment of a compromise with the Government in respect of the land agreement. It was part of the bargain as regards the original land grant, that although the grant was to consist of alternate sections along the line of route, yet the Company had the right to reject such land as was not suitable for agriculture. In exchange for such rejected areas, the Company took over this solid block, a district which, as it stood, and in average seasons, was only fit for grazing, but which, under a system of irrigation, could be trans-formed into valuable agricultural land. The irrigation ditches have already been completed on a million acres, which area has been filled with settlers from practically nearly all the countries in the world. Branch railways in British Columbia are the Shushwap and Okanagan, from Mission Junction to the International Boundary Line, where connection is made with the Northern Pacific Road, and from Westminster Junction to the important city of Westminster.

Born of a political brain, the Canadian Pacific has created for itself an economic life which its most ardent promoters never dreamed of. In a speech delivered at Montreal in October, 1907, Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, the President of the Company, made the following statement :

” There are now in the service of the Company quite 74,000 officers and employees, with a. monthly pay roll of 3,700,000 dollars, and of the whole number of employees I am safe in saying that 70,000 are located in Canada. Estimated on the ordinary basis of five persons to a family, these would represent 350,000 souls, or more than one-twentieth of the entire population of the Dominion, and if to these be added the men in rail and rolling mills, lumber mills, car and locomotive manufactures, and other industrial establishments who are engaged in the manufacture of materials in large quantities for the purposes of the Company, I should say that one-fifteenth, if not one-twelfth, of the people of the country, directly or indirectly, receive their income from the Company.”

The early difficulties of the road are now but a dream. Its progress of late years has been wonderful. The shares were raised to a 10 per cent. basis in January, 1911. The gross earnings for 1910 showed an increase of no less than 18,676,170 dollars over the previous year, the net earnings being 10,884,000 dollars higher. Evidence is not wanting of the great progress made by the Company as regards its land holdings. The sales aggregated 975,030 acres, as compared with 376,046 acres in the preceding twelve months, while the average price received per acre was $1.32 higher. Extensions are proceeding apace. A lease of the New Brunswick Southern Railway for 999 years has been taken ; the Dominion Atlantic Railway has been acquired ; a new line is to be constructed to develop the country in the neighbourhood of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers, in British Columbia ; and the construction of 553 miles of new branch lines in the agricultural districts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta is contemplated.

The line has many advantages. It has been stated that its capital liabilities, in proportion to its mileage, are less than that of any other well-known railway system in the world. It has been fortunate in those who have, since its inception, controlled its interests men remarkable for their energy, integrity, and ability. Its future would seem to be bright. Emigrants are pouring into the Dominion in ever-increasing numbers, every one of whom is a certain customer of the railway. Manufactories are springing up in every direction, and the great natural wealth of the country is, as it were, hardly yet scratched. If the prosperity of the road is so great now, what must it become as years roll on, and Canada becomes, indeed, a nation ? Yet, after all is said, this commanding position is the result, in a large measure, of the undaunted courage of those who, in the dark days of construction, when the whole fate of the enterprise was trembling in the balance, ” nailed their colours to the mast.”

A Dominion charter was granted in 1889 to a Railway Company to be called ” The Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company.” This charter, which had become derelict, was purchased in 1896, and from this small commencement has sprung that great line destined, in the near future, to be one of three great Canadian transcontinental lines now known as the Canadian Northern Railway Company. Much difficulty was experienced in financing the first piece of line. The project was looked at askance in the London market.

Although, as a matter of fact, the route traversed by it formed a portion of that over which it was originally intended the Canadian Pacific line was to pass ; and, although persons well qualified to pass an opinion were loud in the praises of the wonderful fertility of the country, and its boundless possibilities, yet the fact that the road was destined to open up a territory north of any over which a railway had ever been built in the province of Manitoba militated against it. The difficulty was, however, overcome by the co-operation of the Manitoba Government, who guaranteed the bonds, and a railway was constructed from Gladstone to Dauphin.

The year after the line from Gladstone to Dauphin was built, the construction was begun of a line out of Winnipeg, the Manitoba and South-Eastern Company, which was to carry wheat to Lake Superior. Four hundred miles east of Winnipeg, there was in existence a piece of track running from Port Arthur towards Duluth, that belonged to the Port Arthur, Duluth and Western Railway Company. This road was bought, and a beginning was made to connect it with the Manitoba and South-Eastern, which was coming from Winnipeg to the Lake of the Woods. This linking up had to be undertaken in pursuance of the charter of the Ontario and Rainy River Railway Company. While these beginnings were being made in apparently haphazard fashion, property for terminals was secured in Winnipeg and plans prepared for an advance through the Saskatchewan valley to Edmonton.

The Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal charter was for a limited undertaking. Another charter, that of the Winnipeg Great Northern Railway, was purchased, and during 1899, in conformity with it, the original line was carried 195 miles beyond Gladstone. In the same year, the Manitoba and South Western had reached Rainy River, and from Dauphin westerly, the first twenty-five miles had been built in the direction of the Saskatchewan valley.

About this time, it was decided to give the lines that would presently be connected, the name of the ” Canadian Northern.” Soon afterwards, and before announcement of the change had been made, the Northern Pacific, which had 351 miles of road in Manitoba, determined to abandon the field ; and this decision eventuated in the acquisition of the Northern Pacific Lines in Manitoba by the government of the province, and the leasing of them to the Canadian Northern for 999 years, with the option to purchase at any time. This arrangement secured to the Company extensive terminals at Winnipeg, in addition to the lands already purchased, and furnished a line within eighteen miles of Gladstone.

In the first year of the present century the Canadian Northern Railway had 1,200 miles of line, and credit well established in London. In that year also this Company made connection between Winnipeg and Port Arthur, but the whole of the line was not taken over by the operating department until early in 1902. In June, 1902, the system comprised 1,248 miles of completed road, and included the Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company’s line, the Winnipeg Great Northern, the Manitoba and South-Eastern, the Ontario and Rainy River and the Port Arthur Duluth and Western, together with the leased lines of the Northern Pacific and the Portage and North Western the two latter comprising 355 miles, and the first train over the road from Port Arthur to Winnipeg arrived at the latter place in January of that year. Powers ‘had also been obtained for the construction of railway lines from Quebec to the coast, and for a line across British Columbia to Victoria, via Bute Inlet. In the Montreal Witness of November 5th, 1902, Mr. (now Sir William) Mackenzie, the President of the road, discussed the plans of his Company. He said they would shortly have 1,500 miles in operation, and would handle 15,000,000 bushels of wheat in the 1902-3 season, and would have largely increased elevator accommodation. With reference to the transcontinental ambitions of the Company, he stated they proposed going along quietly and steadily, and making each section pay its way. He added that ” we can see the completion of the system to the Coast as an accomplished fact.”

A measure was passed by the Provincial Government of Manitoba, during the session of 1903, guaranteeing the bonds of the Company up to 3,500,000 dollars, or at the rate of 10,000 dollars per mile, for the construction of branch lines of railway, a guarantee being provided for 2,000,000 dollars of equipment and rolling stock. During this year, the progress of the many projects connected with the Railway was very marked. The charter of the Morden and North Western Railway was acquired, with a right of construction from Winnipeg to Morden, and from Morden across Manitoba to its western border. The Great Northern Railway of Quebec, running from Quebec to Hawkesbury, a distance of 225 miles, was purchased. This line had under construction branches which made its total length 370 miles, and had, also, traffic arrangements with the Canada Atlantic Railway to Parry Sound, and elevator and dock facilities at Quebec. Aid was also rendered by the Dominion Parliament at Ottawa. Resolutions were introduced in the House of Commons by the Minister of Railways in connection with the building of a road from Grandview, Manitoba, to Edmonton, Alberta. This assistance was to take the form of a Government guarantee of the principal and interest of the first mortgage bonds, debentures, or other securities of the Company, to the extent of 13,000 dollars a mile. In his speech the Minister stated that the country through which the Railway was to run was exceptionally fertile, and as promising a substantial and paying traffic, and added that the road was needed by the people at once. That the Company still cherished their transcontinental ambitions was shown in an interview with Mr. William Mackenzie, in which he said :—” We have not commenced the construction of the eastern end of the road yet, but we are locating the line, and we hope in time to reach Ottawa, Toronto, Quebec and Montreal by our road, and we will probably put Quebec as near Winnipeg as Montreal is at present by the Canadian Pacific. Do we intend to establish a transcontinental line ? Well, we have been developing in that direction for some time.”

During the year the Grand Trunk Pacific project was introduced into Parliament, and it was freely said that the across Canada idea of the Canadian Northern would be abandoned. In regard to this Mr. Mackenzie stated in the Toronto Globe that It is hardly correct to say that we have abandoned our proposed transcontinental line, but it does look as though we would have to postpone the construction of a through line from the Atlantic to the Pacific.”

During 1904 good progress was made. 252 miles were added and 441 miles constructed. From Port Arthur it, at the close of the year, traversed the rich mining and lumber regions of Thunder Bay and Rainy River into Manitoba, and then across the rich prairie lands of that province, by way of Winnipeg, to Dauphin, where one line went across Southern Saskatchewan, while the other line struck through North-Western Manitoba into Saskatchewan, almost to Prince Albert. The Railway had, all the time, been going ahead, not only in length of road, but also in earnings, the net earnings having increased by some 250,000 dollars over the previous year. Of the mileage operated at the beginning of the year, 353 miles were in Ontario, 930 miles in Manitoba, twenty-two miles in what was then called the NorthWest Territories, and forty-three miles in the State of Minnesota. The President, in reference to the rapid progress in construction in the West, stated that they hoped to get into Edmonton in October, 1905, and into Prince Albert earlier in the year than that. In reply to a question as to their plans on entering British Columbia, he said, ” You know, we expected at one time to be the favoured people to build this new transcontinental road. Now we must go along as best we can, and it may take a little longer than it otherwise would.”

The year 1905 was very much like preceding years, so far as development was concerned. This was carried on with the utmost vigour ; and, true to what had been laid down by Mr. Mackenzie, each section was made to pay its own way. The early completion of the Prince Albert branch was promised, and, among projected lines was one to Hudson’s Bay, and the building of a further line to the Swan River country. Charters were also granted for the construction of various branch lines, and in the report of the Railway Commissioner of Manitoba it was said, ” I am pleased to be able to state that the earnings of the Canadian Northern Railway Company during the year were adequately sufficient to meet all fixed charges, and for an efficient operation of the Company’s lines.” During the year a company called the ” Canadian Northern Lands Company ” was incorporated with a capital of 5,000,000 dollars for the purpose of selling 500,000 acres of the C.N.R. Co.’s land grant.

In the report of the Company describing the growth of the Western country, the President pointed out that the road gave a direct service to 77 per cent. of the people living in the villages, towns and cities of Manitoba. He stated that important centres of commercial distribution in the new Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were to be served in 1905, instancing Prince Albert, Battleford, Strathcona and Edmonton, and that there should be a very material increase in the merchandise carried in 1906. The number of passengers had increased over the previous year by 128,458 and the earnings therefrom 189,000 dollars freight had increased by 259,311 tons, and the earnings by 649,147 dollars. The mileage operated in June, 1905, was 1,876 miles. On November 24th, amid much ceremony and local rejoicing, the railway entered Edmonton, the capital of Alberta.

The same tale of progress has to be told as the result of the operations of the Company in 1906. At the close of the fiscal year in June, there was a total mileage of 2,482 as compared with 1,876 in the previous year. The increase in passenger traffic was 60 per cent., in gross earnings on freight traffic, 46.62 per cent., and in tonnage carried 2&16 per cent. In the Annual Report of the Company it was pointed out that, while a large increase had been received from the movement of grain and traffic, and from the farming and immigration business, yet, the most noteworthy development was in the mineral traffic of the road.

The completion of the line to Edmonton and to Prince Albert marked an important stage in the history of the Company. The latter, in addition to shortening the route to Winnipeg and the east, opened up a large area of prairie land to settlers, and enabled the lumber mills at different points to dispose of their production, while the former developed a large increase in grain and traffic, as well as aiding in a large influx of immigrants. In consonance with the policy of the Company since its inception extensions took place, and the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railway was acquired, this line running from Regina to Prince Albert, a distance of 249 miles. The formal opening of the Railway from Toronto to Parry Sound took place this year, and the road from Parry Sound to Sudbury was pushed forward.

In connection with this line from Toronto to Sudbury, the principal and interest of debenture stock was guaranteed by the Ontario Government. At a banquet given in Toronto, the Vice-President of the Company stated that, during the ten years of their work, 132 towns with 60,000 people had been located, named and surveyed, along the lines of the Canadian Northern Railway, exclusive of tributary farming population and increased population of towns with more than one railway.

In common with other roads operating in Western Canada, the Company had troubles to encounter. Heavy storms were experienced in December, 1906, and in January, 1907, a great snowfall occurred, which was said to have been the heaviest in twenty-five years. Trains were held up in all directions, freight stopped all over the road, and a shortage of fuel led to much suffering. The Railway Company was severely criticised by municipalities and newspapers in respect of shortage of equipment ; and it is recorded that, on April 14th, a train reached Edmonton which had left Winnipeg on March 28th. Speaking in connection with this matter, a high official of the Company said, ” It is at least twenty-five years since such a severe winter has been experienced in the West, and no railway has been able to successfully cope with the conditions, although each road has done the best possible under the circumstances.” These conditions aroused much opposition to applications by the Company for new Western lines, and, in the end, the questions of extensions were dropped for the time being. The approval of the Railway Committee was asked for the construction of branches in Ontario totalling 1,200 miles, and a great number of these were passed.

On June 30th, 1908, the mileage owned, leased or operated by the Railway totalled 2,894, and at the close of the year this had increased to 3,100. In an interview with the Press, Mr. Hanna, a prominent official, said that the Company had 5,400 miles in the east and west, and that in Western Canada there had been placed on the map by the construction of these lines no fewer than 140 towns. In stating that the Company had 5,400 miles of road, Mr. Hanna included various interests and affiliated railways, such as the Canadian Northern Ontario Company, 298 miles ; the Canadian Northern Quebec Railway, 262 miles ; the Halifax and South Western Railway, 370 miles, etc., etc. An outstanding figure in the Western part of the progress of the Company was the upbuilding work in the development of towns and villages. Apart from the growth of established centres caused by the advent of the road, places like Dauphin, Gilbert Plains, North Battleford, Vermilion, etc., were actually created by it. The public aid given to the project was stated by the Railway Department Report of June, 1908, to have been as follows : Dominion subsidies, 5,066,346 dollars ; Ontario bonuses or subsidies 2,422,500 dollars, and grants by municipalities 182,000 dollars. In addition to these sums, it was computed by newspapers that there were guarantees estimated at 35,000,000 dollars, and lands granted by the Dominion Government totalling 4,100,000 acres.

In 1909 the progress of the Railway was continued. 482 miles of road in five provinces were graded and brought into use, and 398 miles were graded for steel. In Ontario, during this year, a land grant of 2,000,000 acres was obtained for the construction of 500 miles of line between Sudbury and Port Arthur ; the Government of Saskatchewan gave a guarantee of 13,000 dollars a mile for the construction in three years of 1,175 miles ; a smilar guarantee was given in Alberta for the construction of 920 miles ; in Manitoba 210 miles were guaranteed at 30,000 dollars per mile, and in British Columbia arrangements were made for a Government guarantee of 21,000,000 dollars for 600 miles of Railway from the mountains to the coast. These roads, carried the combination of interests well across the continent, the only missing link in the chain of connection being that between their Nova Scotia lines and the Canadian Northern in Quebec. Two steamers of over 11,000 tons each were purchased by the Company, and are now running regularly from Bristol to the Dominion, and it has been declared by the Vice-President that the completion of the Canadian Northern Railway to the Pacific Coast will see ” first-class liners equal to any afloat ” launched by the Company on both oceans. The gross earnings for the year were 10,581,767 dollars, as against 9,709,462 dollars in 1908, and the operating expenses 7,015,405 dollars, as against 6,676,775 dollars, and the last report of the Company, for the fiscal year ended June 30th, 1910, shows that the Railway earned in that period 13,833,061 dollars, as compared with 60,000 dollars earned in 1897 by the Gladstone to Dauphin line the nucleus of the Company.

The construction and progress of the Canadian Northern Railway has falsified an axiom long held that a line constructed and operated wholly within the prairie provinces could not pay. So far from this being the case, its earning power has increased with its construction, and Mr. (now Sir Donald) Mann, Vice-President of the Company, stated, in 1909, that although 2,500 miles west of the Great Lakes had been guaranteed as to construction by the Federal or Provincial Governments, no one of those Governments had, or ever would have, to pay a dollar on account of these arrangements. The immigration into the Western Provinces is very large, and is increasing year by year ; making for increased traffic and prosperity for the road. The mineral resources on its route are boundless. Already a great and increasing business is done in this class of traffic. The coalfields of the NorthWest, immense deposits of iron ore in Ontario, the Gowganda silver fields, immense sections of pulp wood, and mineral wealth of all description, are tapped by the Railway, and will unquestionably become, as years go on, an increasing and lucrative source of revenue. This will be added to, to a very large extent, when the extension into British Columbia is an accomplished fact, and with the placing of steamers on both oceans, and settlement increasing at as rapid a pace as at present, it needs to be no prophet to predict for the Canadian Northern Railway a future of the brightest.

It may not be out of place to repeat here what is, after all, a matter of common knowledge, the fact that the Canadian Northern Railway owes much, if not everything, to two men, Sir William Mackenzie and Sir Donald Mann. It was essentially their child. They inspired it, worked for it, and have fostered its growth in every possible way, and it is largely due to their initiative, doggedness and perseverance that the Canadian Northern is what it is today a great Railway in a great country.